Standard form contract (Total 220033 Papers Found)

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  • 2002
Intercellular adhesion molecule-1 (ICAM-1) on the surface of cultured umbilical vein and saphenous vein endothelial cells was upregulated between 2.5and 40-fold by rlL-1, rTNF, LPS and rIFN~/corresponding to up to 5 × 106 sites/cell. Endothelial cell ICAM-1 was a single band of 90 kD in SDS-PAGE. Purified endothelial cell ICAM-1 reconstituted into liposomes and bound to plastic was an excellent substrate for both JY B lymphoblastoid cell and T lymphoblast adhesion, Adhesion to endothelial cell ...
Guanine protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs) constitute a eukaryotic transmembrane protein family and function as “molecular switches” in the second messenger cascades and are found in all organisms between yeast and humans. They form the single, biggest drug-target family due to their versatility of action and their role in several physiological functions, being active players in detecting the presence of light, a variety of smells and tastes, amino acids, nucleotides, lipids, chemicals etc. i ...
This paper examines the monitoring and enforcement of contracts in Danish cooperative creameries in the late nineteenth and early twentieth century, using a unique sample based on the minutes of board and general meetings of over 140 creameries. The period coincides with the rapid expansion and eventual dominance fuelled by economic success of cooperative creameries in Denmark. These cooperatives are best seen as nexi of contracts raising the issue of how well these functioned. Two types of brea ...
iochemical and kinetic studies have failed to provide a unified view on how the Arp2/3 complex nucleates actin filaments. Does the complex, which mediates actin filament nucleation and branch formation at the leading edge of motile cells, bind to the side of an older actin filament, or does it become incorporated into that filament? B Structural studies now add a new dimension to the discourse, supporting the side-binding, dendritic nucleation model. These studies provide visual evidence that th ...
The first edition of Molecular Biology of the Cell came out the year before I began my PhD — I bought a waterdamaged copy of this gem at half price from a clumsy bookstore and was immediately taken by its novelty and readability. My fellow students and I loved the lucid text, the clear schematic diagrams and the short, snappy punchlines telling us all that was important in each new section. All bioscientists and students are now completely familiar with ‘concept headings’ and many use them ...
Using a large, new database of contractual provisions governing the allocation of cash flow rights between venture capitalists (VCs) and entrepreneurs, we investigate how contract design is impacted by VC abilities to monitor and provide value-added services to the entrepreneur. In doing so, this paper is the first to demonstrate that VC characteristics, in addition to portfolio company characteristics, have a significant impact on VC contract design in the U.S. We find that more experienced VCs ...
The literature traditionally assumes that a portfolio manager who expends costly effort to generate information makes an unrestricted portfolio choice and is paid according to a sharing rule. However, the revelation principle provides a more efficient institution. If credible communication of the signal is possible, then the optimal contract restricts portfolio choice and pays the manager a fraction of a benchmark plus a bonus proportional to performance relative to the benchmark. If credible co ...
Recent interest in futures contracts on emerging market currencies has raised concerns among some central bank authorities about their ability to maintain stable currencies. This paper presents empirical results examining the influence of the Mexican peso, the Brazilian real, and the Hungarian forint futures contracts on the respective spot markets. While measures of linear dependence and feedback indicate strong connections between the respective markets, futures volatility does not significant ...
The continuous renewal of human epidermis is sustained by stem cells contained in the epidermal basal layer and in hair follicles1,2. Cultured keratinocyte stem cells, known as holoclones3–6, generate sheets of epithelium used to restore severe skin, mucosal and corneal defects7–9. Mutations in genes encoding the basement membrane component laminin 5 (LAM5) cause junctional epidermolysis bullosa (JEB), a devastating and often fatal skin adhesion disorder10. Epidermal stem cells from an adult ...
The standard contract theory adopts the traditional hypothesis of pure self-interest. However, a series of game experiments have proven that people are not any self-interest but also inequity averse. Then, how will the inequity aversion influence the optimal contract for multiple agents? This paper attempts to obtain new theoretical insights by incorporating inequity aversion into the standard frame of optimal contract design. The optimal contract under relatively weak inequity aversion is found ...
There is an unmet need for noninvasive, specific and quantitative imaging of inherent inflammatory activity. Vascular adhesion protein-1 (VAP-1) translocates to the luminal surface of endothelial cells upon inflammatory challenge. We hypothesized that in a porcine model of acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS), positron emission tomography (PET) with sialic acid-binding immunoglobulin-like lectin 9 (Siglec-9) based imaging agent targeting VAP-1 would allow quantification of regional pulmona ...
Rahman, Arshad, Khandaker N. Anwar, and Asrar B. Malik. Protein kinase C-z mediates TNF-a-induced ICAM-1 gene transcription in endothelial cells. Am J Physiol Cell Physiol 279: C906–C914, 2000.—We addressed the role of protein kinase C (PKC) isozymes in mediating tumor necrosis factor-a (TNF-a)-induced oxidant generation in endothelial cells, a requirement for nuclear factor-kB (NF-kB) activation and intercellular adhesion molecule-1 (ICAM-1) gene transcription. Depletion of the conventional ...
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  • 2017
We read with interest the recent study of Gattoussi et al. investigating the association between vitreomacular adhesion (VMA) and AMD. The authors did not find any statistically significant associations of VMA with any stage of AMD. This result is in contrast to other previous studies that have found an association between VMA and exudative AMD, suggesting that VMA might be a risk factor for choroidal neovascularization (CNV) development. As Gattoussi et al. appropriately pointed out, there are ...
Over the past decade several countries, including the US, have introduced or redesigned legislation that confers priority in bankruptcy upon all or some bank deposits. We argue that in the presence of contracting costs such rules can increase e¢ciency. We ...rst show in a private information model that a borrower can reduce overall costs of ...nance by letting informationally heterogeneous lenders choose between junior and senior debt. In particular, we ...nd that debt priorities reduce sociall ...
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  • 2002
Intercellular adhesion molecule-1 (ICAM-1) on the surface of cultured umbilical vein and saphenous vein endothelial cells was upregulated between 2.5and 40-fold by rlL-1, rTNF, LPS and rIFN~/corresponding to up to 5 × 106 sites/cell. Endothelial cell ICAM-1 was a single band of 90 kD in SDS-PAGE. Purified endothelial cell ICAM-1 reconstituted into liposomes and bound to plastic was an excellent substrate for both JY B lymphoblastoid cell and T lymphoblast adhesion, Adhesion to endothelial cell ...
euronal growth cones have detergent-resistant membranes (DRMs), specialized cell membrane fractions enriched in GPI-anchored proteins and intracellular signaling molecules. But are the DRMs involved in regulating neurite outgrowth? Yes, say Nakai and Kamiguchi (page 1097), who developed a new technique for selectively disrupting DRMs, and used it to demonstrate the functional importance of these structures in neuronal growth cones for the first time. The authors modified a technique called micro ...
Background and Purpose: Diseases caused by bacterial pathogens are the result of the host-pathogen interaction, therefore the contact of bacteria with erythrocytes is highly possible. The aim of this work was to study Streptococcus thermophilus adhesion on human erythrocytes depending on the various pH and ionic strength of the medium. Materials and Methods: Streptococcus thermophilus bacterial cells and human red blood cells have been selected. Erythrocytes were washed with buffer saline and pr ...
I use the incomplete contracts approach to distinguish accounting recognition from disclosure. Accounting recognition settles contracts while disclosure facilitates armslength transactions. The endogenous power of recognition in settling contracts unilaterally makes it vulnerable to influence activities more than disclosure. In particular, recognition is susceptible to transparent influence activities from which disclosure is immune. The extra vulnerability of recognition to influence activities ...
Recent research in industrial organization has emphasized the strategic value of incomplete contracts in vertical intra-firm relationships. This paper offers a screening rationale for contractual incompleteness in a class of producer-retailer economies under adverse selection and moral hazard. By means of a simple two-type agency model, we show that, when the agent (retailer) operates in an imperfectly competitive market, the principal (producer) may deliberately choose to exploit incomplete con ...
This paper o¤ers an explanation of rationally incomplete contracts where incompleteness refers to unforeseen contingencies. Agents enter a relationship with two-sided moral hazard in which a commitment to discard parts of the joint resources may be ex ante e¢cient. This happens through costly legal dispute which arises when contract terms are missing for the undesirable outcomes. We show that an optimal contract needs only to specify the obligation for the more litigious party to assure a cert ...
In the last 20 years the 1990 joke that CIO is starting to mean ‘Career Is Over’ has been buried under the proliferation of CIOs, but the concept behind the CIO – the idea of the C-level executive – probably is over. The C-level fad is waning as the title ‘chief’ is debased, but more important the very sensibility of the idea of the chief is embodied and entombed in a managerial orthodoxy of 20th century industrial administration that simply cannot hold together much longer. It is ti ...
To direct market participants to make efficient use of both transmission and generation resources, energy for both day-ahead and real-time markets is priced by locational marginal price (LMP). Good LMP forecasting will help market participants make effective decisions when preparing offers and bids and making bilateral contracts. LMP forecasting, however, is difficult since LMPs are closely affected by complicated market behaviors and depend heavily on transmission congestions. This paper presen ...
This paper is about the qualitatively different nature of the labour process in the British construction industry compared with that in Germany. The rationale of the British system is based on controlling costs through overseeing contract relations, themselves circumscribing a range of narrow, clearly defined and priced tasks. The production process has become secondary and production expertise restricted. In contrast, in Germany cost aspects are incorporated into, rather than separated from, th ...
Work often requires up-front costs in exchange for delayed benefits—one must search for a job before becoming employed, paychecks are typically delayed by a few weeks, and a promotion may come only after months or years of extra effort—and mounting evidence documents present bias over labor supply in the face of such delays. This paper studies the implications of such present bias for the optimal income tax schedule. I derive expressions for optimal tax rates as a function of observable elas ...
In order to develop an advanced polymer based package technology to obtain small and flexible medical implants, diffusion barriers are essential to protect electronic chips and components for corrosion caused by leaching of body fluids. These barriers need also to stop diffusion of harmful products such as Cu from the device into the body. Furthermore, the barrier layers need to be biocompatible, biostable, compatible with all process steps of the package fabrication and sterilization. Parylene ...
In this paper we demonstrate the efficacy of a stochastic modelling approach involving both diffusion and a jump processes to describe the evolution of spot electricity prices in New South Wales. The model allows a deterministic time trend component and an unobserved process driven by both time varying volatility and occasional jumps. The structure allows us to cast the problem in a state space form and suitable modification of the Kalman filter enables us to infer the unobserved driving process ...
Previous articles in this series have emphasized the fundamental importance of adhesion receptors in vascular biology. One class of these receptors, the integrins, is necessary for vascular and hematopoietic cell development, angiogenesis, cell migration in response to injury, and extracellular matrix assembly. Furthermore, an integrin specific to platelets and megakaryocytes, a IIb b 3 , is indispensable for hemostasis and has become a validated therapeutic target for antithrombotic drugs. Thus ...
We consider general networks of bilateral contracts that include supply chains. We define a new stability concept, called trail stability, and show that any network of bilateral contracts has a trailstable outcome whenever agents’ choice functions satisfy full substitutability. Trail stability is a natural extension of chain stability, but is a stronger solution concept in general contract networks. Trail-stable outcomes are not immune to deviations of arbitrary sets of firms. In fact, we show ...
To elucidate iron-regulated interferon(IFN) effector functions, we investigated three IFN-inducible genes [intercellular adhesion molecule-1 (ICAM-1), human leukocyte antigen (HLA)-DR, guanosine 5 -triphosphate-cyclohydrolase I (GTP-CH)] in primary human monocytes and the cell line THP-1. IFNincreased the surface expression of ICAM-1 and HLA-DR and stimulated GTP-CH activity. Addition of iron before cytokine stimulation resulted in a dose-dependent reduction of these pathways, and iron restricti ...
Global myocardial ischemia reperfusion (I/R), is often obligatory during cardiac surgery, induce an inflammatory response in the transplanted heart. Inflammatory reactions in the graft have a pivotal influence on acute as well as long term graft function. This study was undertaken to investigate the potential role of melatonin in amelioration of I/R injury in the transplanted heart in rat model. The rats were randomized into 3 groups. Group 1 sham group, rat underwent the same anesthetic and sur ...
INTRODUCTION ............................................................................... 960 I. NEGOTIATING CEO EMPLOYMENT CONTRACTS ................... 964 II. DO FIRMS IMPOSE ARBITRATION ON EMPLOYEES THROUGH CONTRACTS OF ADHESION? ................................. 965 A. Worker Rights and Arbitration Provisions in Employment Contracts ............................................ 966 B. Why Arbitrate Employment Contract Disputes? ..... 970 C. Why Might the Parties Prefer to Litigate? ...... ...
The paper investigates the weak-form market hypothesis in the emerging capital market of Nigeria from January 2006 to December 2011. It uses three tests of randomness based on autoregressive technique to check for the presence or otherwise of autocorrelation in daily stock prices and returns from the Nigerian Stock Market. All the tests including the Z-statistics for both stock prices and their returns show significant indications of dependence in return series and hence, of non-randomness. The ...
Objective(s): Abdominal adhesions are one of the most important problems, occurring after intra-abdominal surgery in more than 90% of cases. This condition is the leading cause of bowel obstruction, infertility, and abdominal/pelvic pain. Gold nanoparticles (GNPs) have been shown to be non-toxic and exhibit anti-inflammatory, anti-angiogenic and antioxidant activities. The purpose of this study was to determine the effect of intraperitoneal lavage with GNP solutions on the development of postope ...
In business-to-business relations, contracts serve both as a protection mechanism of trading partners, as well as a prescription document for activities to be executed by the parties. The processes of contract establishment and its enactment are often expensive and time consuming. E-contracting aims at automation of these processes, making them faster and cheaper. For the design of an information system for support of e-contracting, a clear vision of the e-contracting processes is required. In t ...
We consider competition among n upstream …rms when each of them sells a portfolio of distinct products to a downstream …rm having limited slots (or shelf space). We study how bundling a¤ects competition for slots. When the downstream has k number of slots, e¢ ciency requires that it purchase the best k products among all upstream …rms’products. We …nd that without bundling, equilibrium often does not exist and the outcome is often ine¢ cient. This is because each upstream …rm faces both ...
We study the determinants of the extent of outsourcing and of direct foreign investment in an industry in which producers need specialized components. Potential suppliers must make a relationship-specific investment in order to serve each prospective customer. Such investments are governed by imperfect contracts. A final-good producer can manufacture components for itself, but the per-unit cost is higher than for specialized suppliers. We consider how the size of the cost differential, the exten ...
This article describes three models used around the world for the treatment of executory contracts in bankruptcy. An economic analysis is made of the ex post incentives of the bankruptcy trustee to reject the contract under each model, based on Jesse Fried’s article Executory Contracts and Performance Decisions. This article states that the approach used by Spain pz"sprls\"{v"jylh{l"{ol"tvz{"l求jplu{"l’"wvz{"pujlu{p}lz5"[ol"jvu{ypi¦{pvu"vm "{opz" article is to further the discussion on the ...
This paper compares contracts presented by Web sites with earlier machine-dispensed contracts, focusing on the problems raised by mechanized delivery of terms. The validity of the offeree's assent to standard form contract terms presented in various Internet contracting contexts will be considered in light of older judicial decisions. These cases hold that the offeror using mechanized processes must take account of the reasonable expectations of the offeree as the key factor in order for an acce ...
A study was conducted to analyze the constraints and benefi ts perceived by the contract goat farmers and the contractors involved in in-formal contract goat farming taking place in Western Odisha region. Sixty contract goat farmers and thirty contractors were interviewed with semi structured interview schedule within a period of 60 days i.e. January 2013 to March 2013. Study revealed that disease outbreak and loss of animal due to predators were the primary constraints for contract farmers. Ver ...
Adhesives used for mechanical bonding and electrical/thermal transport in high performance electronic packages require high adhesion strength and electrical properties at elevated temperatures. Adhesion strengths of electrically/thermally conductive adhesives on Ni, Cu and Sn surfaces at room temperature and elevated temperature (100 °C) were studied. Their high temperature adhesion strengths on those metal surfaces were improved by surface pretreatment with an adhesion promoter (AP). The ...
Of the vanous unsteady flows that occur in axial turbomachines certain asymmetric disturbances, of wave length large in comparison with blade spacing, have become understood to a certain extent. These disturbances divide themselves into two categories : self-induced oscillations and forced disturbances. A special type of propagating stall appears as a selfinduced disturbance; an asymmetric velocity profile introduced at the compres sor inlet constitutes a forced disturbance. Both phenomena have ...
INTRODUCTION ............................................................................. 780 I. THE UNCONSCIONABILITY DOCTRINE: RECENT USAGE AND HISTORY ........................................................................... 785 A. The Recent Rise in the Use of Unconscionability ............................... 785 B. The Origins of Unconscionability ................................................... 787 1. Railroad Co. v. Lockwood and Contracts of Adhesion ............ 788 2. Unconscionab ...
Revolutions often spawn counterrevolutions and the efficient market hypothesis in finance is no exception. The intellectual dominance of the efficient-market revolution has more been challenged by economists who stress psychological and behavioral elements of stock-price determination and by econometricians who argue that stock returns are, to a considerable extent, predictable. An efficient market (weak form) will contain no significant price pattern, a view supported by numerous empirical stud ...
The paper explores the extent to which people adapt to their deprived living conditions and what kind of form adaptation processes take. The study combines quantitative and qualitative information drawing back on survey data and case studies from two villages in Andhra Pradesh, India. One of the contributions of the paper is that two distinct adaptation processes in the context of poverty are identified, namely resignation and optimism. ...
Conducting clinical studies is rather difficult because of the large variety of voluminous datasets, different documentation styles, and various information systems, especially in radiation oncology. In this paper, we describe our development of a web-based documentation system with first approaches of automatic statistical analyses for transnational and multicenter clinical studies in particle therapy. It is possible to have immediate access to all patient information and exchange, store, proce ...
ABSTRACTS accumulated on the PVA grafts. The clinical standard ePTFE graft was used as a negative control and collagen-coated ePTFE grafts were used as positive controls. As expected, the collagen coated graft had significant platelet attachment, which steadily increased to a final average of 1.02±0.62*109platelets/cm. Platelet attachment to the ePTFE graft had a final average of 0.41±0.15*109platelets/cm. While not statistically significant from the ePTFE negative control, all PVA samples acc ...
Spontaneous adhesion can seriously jeopardize the reliability of micro-electro-mechanical systems, both during the fabrication phase and in the operation conditions. For this reason, adhesion in MEMS has been the topic of abundant research works in the last decade. This paper aims at the formulation of a computational model in order to simulate the adhesion phenomena in various environmental conditions. The present approach is based on Finite Element (FE) simulations on a representative part of ...
The paper analyses data on wages, employment and labour composition in the Uruguayan manufacturing sector during 1985-1999 in order to get some evidence on the effects of union action on these variables. The whole period is first studied using a model in which no assumptions on the underlying bargaining model are made. The results support the hypothesis of two different bargaining frameworks in the 80s and 90s. Therefore, a right-tomanage bargaining model is specified for the 80s and a recursive ...