Nutritional Physiological Phenomena (Total 161922 Papers Found)

Ants dominate many terrestrial ecosystems, yet we know little about their nutritional physiology and ecology. While traditionally viewed as predators and scavengers, recent isotopic studies revealed that many dominant ant species are functional herbivores. As with other insects with nitrogen-poor diets, it is hypothesized that these ants rely on symbiotic bacteria for nutritional supplementation. In this study, we used cloning and 16S sequencing to further characterize the bacterial flora of sev ...
OBJECTIVE To analyse sports activities of patients with hip or knee osteoarthritis (OA) over lifetime, preoperatively, and 5 years after arthroplasty. METHODS In a longitudinal four centre study, 809 consecutive patients with advanced OA of the hip (420) or the knee (389) joint under the age of 76 years who required total joint replacement were recruited. A completed questionnaire about sports activities at 5 year follow up was received from 636 (79%) of the 809 patients. RESULTS Although mo ...
Cities and Mayors are increasingly being recognized as important in shaping social policy and improving social well-being. And municipal food policies are increasingly important as a tool to reduce food insecurity and prevent diet-related chronic diseases. Thus city governments have a unique ability to improve local food environments. To realize this potential for improving urban food environments, nutrition advocates will need to find innovative approaches for influencing municipal food policy. ...
We studied the effect of various maternal dietary protein contents on fetal brain growth in streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats. Timed-pregnant dams were divided into two groups, one fed a 40% casein (40%) diet, the other a 20% casein (20%) diet. Diets were isoenergetic. On day 9 of gestation, half the dams in each group were rendered diabetic by IV injection of 40 mg/kg streptozotocin (20%D, 40%D). These dams were pair-fed to the non-diabetic dams. Dams were sacrificed on day 22 of gestation. ...
Importance Food insecurity is associated with high health care expenditures, but the effectiveness of food insecurity interventions on health care costs is unknown. Objective To determine whether the Supplemental Nutrition Assistance Program (SNAP), which addresses food insecurity, can reduce health care expenditures. Design, Setting, and Participants This is a retrospective cohort study of 4447 noninstitutionalized adults with income below 200% of the federal poverty threshold who participa ...
Domestic dogs (Canis lupus familiaris) and cats (Felis silvestris catus) are common species targeted by nongovernmental or intergovernmental organizations, veterinarians and government agencies worldwide, for field interventions (e.g., population management, rabies vaccination programs) or innovations (e.g., development of technologies or pharmaceuticals to improve animal welfare). We have a moral responsibility to ensure that the conduct of this work is humane for dogs or cats, and to consider ...
Drosophila melanogaster has been widely used in the biological sciences as a model organism. Drosophila has a relatively short life span of 60-80 days, which makes it attractive for life span studies. Moreover, approximately 60% of the fruit fly genes are orthologs to mammals. Thus, metabolic and signal transduction pathways are highly conserved. Maintenance and reproduction of Drosophila do not require sophisticated equipment and are rather cheap. Furthermore, there are fewer ethical issues inv ...
OBJECTIVE To evaluate the dietary patterns in a group of patients diagnosed with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and under treatment with extended-release methylphenidate (MPH-ER). MATERIAL AND METHODS A nutrition survey (food intake recall for three consecutive days) was carried out on 100 patients diagnosed with ADHD and under treatment with MPH-ER, and in 150 healthy children (control group). Calorie and nutrient intake, as well as nutrition status, were evaluated and compar ...
Successful crop production depends initially on the availability of high-quality seed. By 2050 global climate change will have influenced crop yields, but will these changes affect seed quality? The present review examines the effects of elevated carbon dioxide (CO2) and temperature during seed production on three seed quality components: seed mass, germination and seed vigour. In response to elevated CO2, seed mass has been reported to both increase and decrease in C3 plants, but not change in ...
Awareness of conflicts of interest (COI) in medicine began in the 1980s. More recently, the problem has gained notoriety in nutritional sciences. COI with industry could bias study conclusions in the context of research activities and scientific publications on nutritional sciences. The issue of COI in nutritional sciences deserves more attention and requires careful analyses as biased information can negatively impact the development of dietary guidelines and, ultimately, population health. Dec ...
UNLABELLED Several experimental models suggest a link between maternal nutrition during gestation and reproductive function in offspring, but the impact of birth weight on male fertility in adulthood in humans is poorly documented. To study whether birth weight is associated with unexplained male subfertility later in life, we evaluated the relationship between birth weight and sperm parameters in adulthood in white subfertile men, partners of couples with primary idiopathic subfertility, and fe ...
  • R. Cuevas,
  • Archivos latinoamericanos de nutricion
  • 1991
A conceptual framework is presented, expressing the relationship between food availability and the food and nutritional status of a population. As element of the model, the generation and transfer of appropriate food technologies were included. Based on the conceptual framework, three successful cases of food technology transfer in the Central American area were analyzed. The most important aspects of each case were identified, and a critical review of the characteristics and conditions required ...
BACKGROUND The U.S. Department of Agriculture developed Dietary Guidelines for Americans, 2010, by taking into consideration evidence-based nutritional science, changes in the food supply and environmental influences. CONCLUSIONS The 2010 guidelines emphasize the importance of maintaining caloric balance to support a healthy weight and selecting nutrient-dense foods and beverages to ensure adequate nutrient intakes. Americans' compliance with previous dietary guidelines has been poor, and the ...
Food and knowledge of food is an essential part of life. Knowledge about how to get enough and how to get it right is an essential part of all cultures. Since food is vital, nutrition policy is critical. Nutrition policy is about who should eat what, why, when and how in order to promote better health. This article deals with the politics of nutrition, which is about who eats what, why, when, how, and with what impact on their lives. For food, whether it is scarce or abundant, affects people une ...
To investigate the effects of maternal dietary selenium (Se-enriched yeast) on testis development, testosterone level and steroidogenesis-related gene expression in testis of their male kids, selected pregnant Taihang Black Goats were randomly allotted to four treatment groups. They were fed the basal gestation and lactation diets supplemented with 0 (control), 0.5, 2.0 and 4.0 mg of Se/kg DM. Thirty days after weaning, testes were collected from the kids. After the morphological development s ...
Today, food addiction has become an increasing area of research. Multiple studies aim to characterize individuals in terms of food addiction based on the assumption, that hyperpalatable foods rich of salt, sugar and fat may induce a cluster of behavioral changes that may resemble a substance use disorder, despite the fact that to date there is no evidence, that nutritional factors lead to an addictive eating-like behavior in humans. In this review article, we aim to introduce the basic experimen ...
The objective of this prospective, randomized controlled trial was to assess the effectiveness of the Food For Heart Program patient nutrition tool in hypercholesterolemic outpatients. The setting for this study was an urban academic primary-care practice; 175 hypercholesterolemic adults not taking cholesterol-lowering medications were enrolled as subjects. The study intervention involved four monthly dietary counseling visits, using the Food For Heart Program, conducted by the study research as ...
MSU is an affirmative action/equal opportunity institution. Editors The MSU International Development Paper series is designed to further the comparative analysis of international development activities in Africa, Latin America, Asia, and the Near East. The papers report research findings on historical, as well as contemporary, international development problems. The series includes papers on a wide range of topics, such as alternative rural development strategies; nonfarm employment and small s ...
Nutrition plays an important role in human metabolism and health. However, it is unclear in how far self-reported nutrition intake reflects de facto differences in body metabolite composition. To investigate this question on an epidemiological scale we conducted a metabolomics study analyzing the association of self-reported nutrition habits with 363 metabolites quantified in blood serum of 284 male participants of the KORA population study, aged between 55 and 79 years. Using data from an 18-i ...
Increasing epidemiological evidence suggests that maternal nutrition and environmental exposure early in development play an important role in susceptibility to disease in later life. In addition, these disease outcomes seem to pass through subsequent generations. Epigenetic modifications provide a potential link between the nutrition status during critical periods in development and changes in gene expression that may lead to disease phenotypes. An increasing body of evidence from experimental ...
BACKGROUND A healthy diet in pregnancy is important for both maternal and infant health but this may be difficult to achieve particularly for groups such as teenage pregnant women, many of whom are from disadvantaged backgrounds. To our knowledge this is the first report of a practical nutrition education programme for this group in the UK. METHOD An intervention was designed incorporating seven informal food preparation sessions, which allowed opportunities for discussion of nutritional, and ...
S Chelating is the chemical process by which a mineral (iron, cobalt, copper, zinc, and manganese) is combined with a mixture of amino acids and peptides. The resulting substances are known as chelates. Another descriptive term, proteinates, refers to the amino acid bond. These chelated minerals are thought to be more digestible than nonchelated forms. In other words, chelation makes the minerals more bioavailable (able to be absorbed and used for bodily functions), chiefly by shielding them fro ...
Milk contains numerous nutrients. The content of n-3 fatty acids, the n-6/n-3 ratio, and short- and medium-chain fatty acids may promote positive health effects. In Western societies, cow’s milk fat is perceived as a risk factor for health because it is a source of a high fraction of saturated fatty acids. Recently, there has been increasing interest in donkey’s milk. In this work, the fat and energetic value and acidic composition of donkey’s milk, with reference to human nutrition, and t ...
Food insecurity is a significant problem in the developing world, and one that is likely to increase given the current global food crisis spurred by rising oil prices, conversion of food to biofuels, and reduced harvests in the wake of natural disasters. The impacts of food insecurity on nutrition status, growth, and development are well substantiated; less is known about the non-nutritional impacts of food insecurity, such as its effects on mental health. This systematic review assesses current ...
Wide variations among multifaceted-health benefitting attributes of probiotics fueled investigations on targeting efficacious probiotics. In the current study, lactic acid bacteria (LAB) isolated from poultry gut, feces of rat, chicken, human infants, and fermented foods were characterized for desired probiotic functional properties including the phytase-producing ability which is one of the wanted characteristics for probiotics for potential applications for upgrading animal nutrition, enhancin ...
The scope of this study is to evaluate the condition of household food and nutrition (in)security (IAN) of the users of low-budget restaurants in Belo Horizonte (BH). This is an analytical cross-sectional study carried out on all low-budget restaurants and cafeteria in BH with a sample of 1613 users. The IAN was assessed using the Brazilian Food Insecurity Scale and cross-checked with the socioeconomic profile of the users. The Chisquare and Mann-Whitney tests were applied. All p-value < 0.25 ...
The objective of this report was to describe the development process of an innovative smartphone-based electronic learning (eLearning) nutrition education program targeted to Supplemental Nutrition Assistance Program-Education-eligible individuals, entitled Food eTalk. Lessons learned from the Food eTalk development process suggest that it is critical to include all key team members from the program's inception using effective inter-team communication systems, understand the unique resources nee ...
Incorrect knowledge of the health production function may lead to inefficient household choices, and thereby to the production of suboptimal levels of health. This paper studies the effects of a randomized intervention in rural Malawi which, over a six-month period, provided mothers of young infants with information on child nutrition without supplying any monetary or in-kind resources. A simple model first investigates theoretically how nutrition and other household choices including labor supp ...
In adults, circulating leptin concentrations are dependent on body fat content and on current nutritional status. However, the relationships among maternal nutrient intake, fetal adiposity, and circulating leptin concentrations before birth are unknown. We investigated the effects of an increase in nutrient intake in the pregnant ewe on fetal adiposity and plasma leptin concentrations during late gestation. Between 115 and 139-141 days gestation (term = 147 +/- 3 days gestation), ewes were fed a ...
  • Gerrit M. Alink, Morten Poulsen,
  • Food and chemical toxicology : an international journal published for the British Industrial Biological Research Association
  • 2008
In this report the various elements of the safety and nutritional assessment procedure for genetically modified (GM) plant derived food and feed are discussed, in particular the potential and limitations of animal feeding trials for the safety and nutritional testing of whole GM food and feed. The general principles for the risk assessment of GM plants and derived food and feed are followed, as described in the EFSA guidance document of the EFSA Scientific Panel on Genetically Modified Organisms ...
The burden of food insecurity and malnutrition is a severe problem experienced by many poor households and children under the age of five are at high risk. The objective of the study was to examine household food insecurity, dietary diversity, and child nutritional status in relation to local context which influences access to and ability to grow food in South Africa and explore the links and associations between these and household socio-economic status. Using a 48-h dietary recall method, we i ...
The nutrition community has, unfortunately, tended to overemphasize the benefits to be derived from consumption of recommended levels of essential nutrients and has tended to ignore or underemphasize--except for obesity--the effects of over-consumption. New guidelines incorporating both concepts must and will be formulated. The nutrition community has the opportunity to provide the leadership required. If it does not meet the challenge, that will be assumed by others. ...
Nutrition behavior usually becomes manifest during childhood and once learned food patterns and eating habits are often maintained for the rest of life. Therefore, imparting knowledge early about food composition, food habits, nutritional physiology, and connections between health and nutrition as well as instilling competence in dealing with food are of particular importance. In the EiS project, it was recently shown that fewer students than ever obtain less and less nutrition education in Germ ...
In The Molecular Basis of Dominance, Kacser & Burns (1981) demonstrated that dominance in diploids and polyploids, and pleiotropy in all organisms, were biochemical phenomena; they were the consequences of the response of a metabolic system to a genetically specified change in the activity of any one enzyme within the system. Epistasis was similarly explicable when each of at least two enzyme activities suffered a change. The significance of this achievement by Kacser & Burns (1981) for biochemi ...
The effect of seasonal changes in household food availability on the dietary intakes and the nutritional status of 24 lactating women from smallholder rural households in Nakuru district Kenya, were investigated over a 15-month period in 1992/93 agricultural cycle. Dietary intakes and body weights were measured on monthly basis. Significant seasonal differences were found in intakes of calcium, vitamin A, vitamin C, riboflavin, and niacin respectively (P < 0.01), as well as in the intake of p ...
Studies suggest bone growth and development are influenced by maternal nutrition, during intrauterine and early postnatal life. This study assessed the role of MGP and a maternal high fat diet on vitamin K-dependent proteins’ gene expression and their impact on bone formation. Knockout (KO) offspring were smaller than wild type (WT) littermates, yet possessed the same volume of intrascapular brown adipose tissue. The total proportion of body fat was reduced, but only in animals on a control di ...
BACKGROUND Maternal mortality is high in Mali. Nevertheless, there are few studies on this topic from rural areas, and current estimates are mostly based on studies from urban settings. Our objective was to estimate the maternal mortality ratio in Kita, rural Mali. METHODS Using the "sisterhood method", we interviewed participants aged 15-50 years from 20 villages in Kita, Mali, and thereby created a retrospective cohort of their sisters in reproductive age. Based on population and fertility e ...
Preterm neonates have an immature gut and metabolism and may benefit from total parenteral nutrition (TPN) before enteral food is introduced. Conversely, delayed enteral feeding may inhibit gut maturation and sensitize to necrotizing enterocolitis (NEC). Intestinal mass and NEC lesions were first recorded in preterm pigs fed enterally (porcine colostrum, bovine colostrum, or formula for 20-40 h), with or without a preceding 2- to 3-day TPN period (n = 435). Mucosal mass increased during TPN and ...
Obesity disproportionately affects low-income and minority individuals and has been linked with food insecurity, particularly among women. More research is needed to examine potential mechanisms linking obesity and food insecurity. Therefore, this study's purpose was to examine cross-sectional associations between food insecurity, Supplemental Nutrition Assistance Program (SNAP) benefits per household member, perceived stress, and body mass index (BMI) among female SNAP participants in eastern N ...
The risks of miscarriage, prematurity and low birth weight are particularly acute in adolescent girls who are still growing at the time of conception. The role of maternal nutrition in mediating pregnancy outcome in this vulnerable group has been examined in sheep models. When singleton bearing adolescent dams are overnourished to promote rapid maternal growth throughout pregnancy, growth of both the placenta and fetus is impaired, and birth occurs prematurely relative to control adolescents of ...
OBJECTIVE The present study examined the influence of family characteristics and maternal feeding practices on eating behaviors, food consumption and nutritional status of children living in 6 districts of Nakhon Pathom province and 3 surrounding districts of Bangkok. MATERIAL AND METHOD One hundred and ninety nine families were enrolled in the present study. Four specific mother-child pair groups were purposively selected: 62 obese child/overweight mother pairs, 49 obese child/ normal weight ...
McCrady Shelly K (Last Name) (First Name) (Initial) Response surface analysis of rat bone composition changes by dietary calcium and silicon (Title) Food and Nutritional Sciences Dr. Carol Seaborn December 2003 124 (Graduate Major) (Research Advisor) (Month / Year) (# of Pages) Turabian, Kate. A Manual for Writers of Term Papers, Theses, and Dissertations. 1987 (Name of Style Manual Used in the Study) Silicon (Si) apparently is involved in bone calcification; however, its affect appears to be re ...
The concept of symptom-avoidance behavior is discussed, with particular reference to home intravenous hyperalimentation (HIVH) patients. Symptom-avoidance behavior is explained as a combination of a health behavior model and an expectancy motivational theory leading to a basic outcome, which is satisfactorily avoiding the onset of symptoms. A systematic behavioral assessment method is presented, based on anecdotal cases; it is experimental in nature and can serve as a guide for practitioners who ...
An experiment was carried out to study the effect of fermentation and poultry litter level of nutritive value of bagasse as animal feed. Four rations were made contained zero poultry litter (T1), 10% (T2), 20% (T3) and 30% (T4), the rations were ensiled for two months. An analysis of variance was performed for the treatments and significant differences was identified by means of Tukey`s T-test. The approximate analysis of chemical composition of dry crude protein (CP), ether extract (E.E), Ash, ...
A range of epidemiological and experimental studies have indicated that suboptimal nutrition at different stages of gestation is associated with an increased prevalence of adult hypertension, cardiovascular disease, and obesity. The timing of prenatal nutrient restriction is important in determining postnatal outcomes-including obesity. The present study, aimed to determine the extent to which fetal adiposity and expression of the key thermogenic protein, uncoupling protein (UCP)1, are altered b ...