Breeding (Total 68138 Papers Found)

Heterosis and breed differences were estimated for milk yield traits, somatic cell score (SCS), and productive life (PL), a measure of longevity. Yield trait data were from 10,442 crossbreds and 140,421 purebreds born since 1990 in 572 herds. Productive life data were from 41,131 crossbred cows and 726,344 purebreds born from 1960 through 1991. The model for test-day yields and SCS included effects of herd-year-season, age, lactation stage, regression on sire's predicted transmitting ability, ad ...
Grazing by herbivorous birds is often cited as an important factorin suppressing macrophyte development in shallow lakes undergoingrestoration, thus delaying the attainment of the stable clear waterstate. Development and succession of macrophyte communities andsize, diet and grazing pressure of coot (Fulica atra)populations upon macrophytes, were monitored over the seasonalcycle at ten shallow lakes of varying nutrient status, in theNorfolk Broads in eastern England. In spring, territorial breed ...
In Parastizopus armaticeps (Tenebrionidae), a nocturnal desert beetle, the males excavate breeding burrows and maintain their moisture level while the females provision the larvae with detritus collected on the surface. The beetles court in small groups on the surface at night after rain. Male size distribution in these groups corresponded to that in the population but more large and fewer small females were present than expected and more large beetles of both sexes bred. Offspring number correl ...
Little is known about the neural control of female responses to male courtship. Female European starlings in breeding condition with high concentrations of estrogen select mates based on variation in song and approach nest boxes broadcasting male song. In contrast, outside of the breeding season (when estrogen is low) females do not display the same response to male song. The catecholamines dopamine and norepinephrine regulate behaviors important for mate choice such as arousal, attention, sexua ...
The cultivated tomato is second most consumed vegetable of the world and is an important part of a diverse and balanced diet as a rich source of vitamins, minerals, phenolic antioxidants and antioxidant lycopene having anti-cancer properties. To reap benefit of genomics of the domestic tomato (Solanum lycopersicum L.) unravelled by Tomato Genome Consortium (The Tomato Genome Consortium, 2012), the bulk mining of its markers in totality is imperative and critically required. The solgenomics has l ...
Imported from the Andean region to Europe in the 16th century, today tomato is widespread throughout the world and represents the most economically important vegetable crop worldwide. Tomato is not only traded in the fresh market but is also used in the processing industry in soups, as paste, concentrate, juice, and ketchup. It is an incredible source of important nutrients such as lycopene, β-carotene and vitamin C, which all have positive impacts on human health. Its production and consumptio ...
High Alcohol Withdrawal (HAW) and Low Alcohol Withdrawal (LAW) mice were selectively bred from a foundation population of C57BL6/J (B6) x DBA/2J (D2) F2 intercross progeny for display of intense or mild handling-induced withdrawal convulsions, respectively, following a single injection of a hypnotic dose of ethanol (alcohol; 4 g/kg). The HAW line had significantly greater alcohol withdrawal severity scores compared to the LAW line after only a single generation of selection; the magnitude of the ...
A dramatic increase in the breeding population of geese has occurred over the past few decades at Svalbard. This may strongly impact the fragile ecosystems of the Arctic tundra because many of the ultra-oligotrophic freshwater systems experience enrichment from goose feces. We surveyed 21 shallow tundra ponds along a gradient of nutrient enrichment based on exposure to geese. Concentrations of total phosphorus (P) and dissolved inorganic nitrogen (DIN) in the tundra ponds ranged from 2–76 to 2 ...
Dogs exhibit a range of immune-mediated conditions including a lymphocytic thyroiditis which has many similarities to Hashimoto's thyroiditis in man. We have recently reported an association in Doberman Pinschers between canine hypothyroidism and a rare DLA class II haplotype that contains the DLA-DQA1*00101 allele. We now report a further series of 173 hypothyroid dogs in a range of breeds where a significant association with DLA-DQA1*00101 is shown. ...
Catalepsy (pronounced motor inhibition) is a natural defensive reaction against predator. Recently, the quantitative trait locus for catalepsy was mapped on mouse chromosome 13 near the 5-HT(1A) serotonin receptor gene. Here, the linkage between catalepsy and the 5-HT(1A) receptor gene was verified using breeding experiment. Selective breeding for high predisposition to catalepsy was started from backcross BC[CBA x (CBA x AKR)] generation between catalepsy-prone (CBA) and catalepsy-resistant (AK ...
A review of the occurrence and chemistry of lamb/mutton flavour is presented. The low consumption of both lamb and mutton has been attributed to the flavour of these meats. There is general agreement that the flavour of meat from younger animals is more desirable than that from older ones. Further, the flavour intensity of meat from wethers is less than that of ewes, less than rams. Breed appears to have an effect; mutton flavour is more predominant in the fine-wool breeds and is apparently dire ...
This article describes how continued selection for divergent levels of the 10-day-old infant rat's ultrasonic vocal (USV) response to isolation affects the time course of development of that and other possible co-selected traits from 3 to 21 days postnatally. Since selective breeding for an infantile trait has not been reported before, we collected from colleagues a number of predicted outcomes that reflect the wide range of current opinion on the relationship between microevolutionary and devel ...
The inheritance of tuber shape was studied by developing and/or selecting clones from a cultivated diploid potato breeding program. Progeny analyses indicated that one major gene controls the round and long shapes. Round is dominant over long. The gene symbol Ro, earlier proposed by Masson, is accepted. All three possible genotypes, RoRo, Roro and roro were identified. Ro was found to be linked with I, a previously described gene which controls the expression of anthocyanin in the tuber skin. In ...
Geographic variation of vocal behaviour may be reflective of genetic, cultural and ecological differences between locations. Such differences have been previously reported in six pinnipeds, including Weddell seals (Leptonychotes weddellii). This study investigated whether the acoustic characteristics of airborne Weddell seal mother and pup ‘contact’ calls vary geographically between the Vestfold Hills and McMurdo Sound. From each location, 72 mother and 120 pup calls were analysed, with 11 a ...
Morphological analysis of a small freshwater goby, Rhinogobius flumineus, showed a distinct dimorphic asymmetry in the lower jaw. The mouth of each fish opened with a slight but definite distortion toward the right or left side, depending on the individual. Right-opening mouth (dextral) fish had a right lower jaw that was more protruded than the left one, and left-opening (sinistral) fish had a more protruded left lower jaw. No fish had laterally symmetric lower jaws, indicating that the asymmet ...
The Przewalski's horse (Equus caballus przewalskii) was extinct in the wild by the mid 1960s. The species has survived because of captive breeding only. The Takhin Tal reintroduction project is run by the International Takhi Group; it is one of two projects reintroducing horses to the wild in Mongolia. In 1997 the first harem group was released. The first foals were successfully raised in the wild in 1999. Currently, 63 Przewalski's horses live in Takhin Tal. Little information exists on causes ...
Genomic selection has led to opportunities for developing new breeding values that rely on phenotypes in dedicated reference populations of genotyped cows. In Australia, it has been applied to 2 novel traits: feed efficiency, which was released in 2015 as feed saved breeding values, and heat tolerance genomic breeding values, released for the first time in 2017. Feed saved is already included in the national breeding objective, which is focused on profitability and designed to be in line with fa ...
Genetic diversity is the basis for successful crop improvement and can be estimated by different methods. The objectives of this study were to estimate the genetic diversity of 63 naked barley genotype using agro-morphological traits, biochemical and molecular markers and to determine the relationships of genetic distance estimates obtained from these methods. Among traits under study, a considerable diversity was observed for peduncle length, 1000-grain weight and grain yield per plot. In the a ...
A field investigation was conducted on the floral syndrome and breeding system of Corydalis edulis located in natural populations in campus of Anhui Normal University by out-crossing index, pollen-ovule ratio, artificial pollination and bagging experiment. The results showed that the plant was in bloom from March to May and flowering span among populations was 72 days. The flowering span for a raceme was 14-24 days. The life span of one single flower was approximately 5-10 days. Spatial position ...
BACKGROUND Maternal diabetes can induce a number of developmental abnormalities in laboratory animals and humans, including facial deformities and defects in neural tube closure. The incidence of birth defects in newborns of diabetic women is approximately 3-5 times higher than among non-diabetics. In mice, non-specific activation of the maternal immune system can reduce fetal abnormalities caused by diverse etiologies, including diabetes induced neural tube defects. This study was conducted to ...
INTRODUCTION Estimation of genetic parameters is one of the basic tasks in quantitative genetics. As recording schemes become more sophisticated and breeding objectives more detailed, the number of traits of interest is increasing continually. This necessitates multivariate analyses considering more than just a few traits simultaneously. Fortunately, we are at a stage were advances in modelling, computational algorithms and the corresponding software for estimation, paired with modern day comput ...
Canine brucellosis caused by Brucella canis is a neglected zoonosis worldwide and is a leading cause of reproductive failure in dogs, often causing substantial economic losses in breeding kennels. This study aimed to investigate the occurrence of B. canis infection in dogs of commercial breeding kennels located in São Paulo State, Brazil. A total of 753 dogs (183 males and 570 females) from 38 commercial kennels were clinically examined, and blood samples were collected for brucellosis diagnos ...
In 2007, nearly 3,800 thoroughbreds were sold at the Keeneland September Yearling Sale for a total sum of $385,018,600 (International Horse Breeding 2007). This annual sale, held in Lexington, Kentucky, is restricted to registered thoroughbred horses one year of age (“yearling” is an industryspecific term for horses one year of age; see Appendix B for a glossary of additional terms). These horses, months away from beginning their racing careers, commanded an average sales price of $101,347. ...
Contact with oestrual ewes induces an increase in LH and testosterone concentrations in rams. LH provokes an increase in testicular capillary permeability in rodents and an increase in testicular fluid in rams. Therefore, the objectives of the present experiment were to determine whether contact with oestrual ewes, including courtship and mating, induces an increase in testicular fluid content and scrotal temperature in rams. During the breeding season, after 2 weeks isolated from females, a tot ...
Bone fracture healing is a tightly regulated process involving many cell types, mediators, and signaling pathways and is still not well understood. During decades, bone healing was mainly studied in large animals, including dogs, rabbits, or sheep. In recent years, mice have become increasingly popular as a model organism for fracture healing research. The benefits of mice are the possibility of genetic modification, the availability of clinically relevant disease models, low costs, easy handli ...
Strategic medication in breeding flocks of domestic fowl (Gallus gallus), using antimicrobial treatment followed by competitive exclusion, was evaluated in 13 trials between February and September 1993. In each trial, the flock had been confirmed as naturally infected with Salmonella enterica serovar Enteritidis and the effect of treatment was determined on salmonella isolation from tissues. Of 11 trials where enrofloxacin was used, a long-term reduction of salmonella was observed in two and a s ...
We are proud to present the fourth Database Issue of Plant and Cell Physiology (PCP) (available online at http://pcp.oxfordjour nals.org/). As we have introduced in previous years (Matsuoka and Yano 2010, Obayashi and Yano 2013), the ultimate goal of PCP’s annual Database Issue is to provide a useful online resource and forum for discussion of bioinformatics research, and in particular the development and maintenance of the infrastructure of web databases for plant science. Recently, largescal ...
Agronomic characteristics of genetically modified (GM) MON 89034 × TC1507 × NK603 × DAS-40278-9 (PowerCore™ Enlist™), MON 89034 × TC1507 × NK603 (PowerCore™), and DAS-40278-9 (Enlist™) corn, a non-GM near-isogenic hybrid, and 2 commercial non-GM hybrids were assessed in a field study to determine if the agronomic performance of the GM corn hybrids is equivalent to that of non-transgenic hybrid corn. The MON 89034 × TC1507 × NK603 × DAS-40278-9 hybrid corn was developed through st ...
We obtained data on time of sexual maturity, dimorphism, fecundity and on the reproductive cycle of Mastigodryas boddaerti (Sentzen, 1796) through the examination of 321 preserved specimens, of which 221 were collected in the Brazilian Amazon region and 100 in the Cerrado savannas of Central Brazil. The degree of sexual size dimorphism (snout-vent length, SVL) was significantly greater in the specimens from the Cerrado in comparison with those from the Amazon. Females had a significantly larger ...
INTRODUCTION Decompression sickness (DCS) is a complex and poorly understood systemic disease caused by inadequate desaturation after a decrease of ambient pressure. Strong variability between individuals is observed for DCS occurrence. This raises questions concerning factors that may be involved in the interindividual variability of DCS occurrence. This study aimed to experimentally assess the existence of heritable factors involved in DCS occurrence by selectively breeding individuals resista ...
SELF-incompatible Petunia, Tagetes, Trifolium repens and Brassica oleracea have been made self-compatible by spraying the flowering plants with a solution of α-naphthalene acetamide1. This new technique has many possibilities to the plant breeder, but without a more complete study of how it works these possibilities cannot be developed properly. Eyster states that “α naphthalene acetamide neutralizes the effects of an ovarian secretion which diffuses into the style and inhibits or greatly re ...
Cows are culled for many reasons however; the most common reason is due to failure to conceive upon exposure during the breeding season. Most of the cows in Florida are culled in the mid to late fall and sold either at the auction or direct to a cull cow packer. Due to increasing beef demand and short supply chains there is a need in the beef industry to fill voids of middle and intermediate value cuts. It is fairly common to hold and feed cull cows for a period of time, if feed reserves are ple ...
The results of these experiments has led us to conclude that light is a primary factor in inducing sexual activity in pheasants, quail and grouse, through the mediation of the hypophysis. Once this hypophysealgonad reaction is started it can not continue indefinitely with adequate light but only until the hypophysis falters in the production of the gonad-stimulating hormone through causes unknown. The immature pheasant resembles the adult at the close of the breeding season in that the gonads ar ...
Field beans (faba beans, broad beans, horse beans, ackerbohnen, Vicia faba L.) depress weight of eggs when fed to laying hens. Vicine isolated from field beans has been shown to depress egg weight and hatchability when fed in large amounts. The present study was undertaken to determine the effect of using three varieties of field beans, varying in tannin and total vicines content, at 20% in breeder diets on reproductive performance of hens and associated vicine transfer from the diet to the egg. ...
The aim of the work is to evaluate the effects of different forage to concentrate rations on milk yield, composition and renneting properties of milk of Jonica breed goats. Twenty-four Jonica goats received diets with forage to concentrate ratio of 35/65, 50/50 or 65/35, providing respectively a low, medium and high energy level. Goats were divided into three homogenous groups and confined in individual pens for 152 days to assess the daily feed intake and milk yield and composition. The main co ...
The primary objectives of this study were to estimate the prevalence of Campylobacter fetus subsp. venerealis (Cfv) and Tritrichomonas foetus in breeding bulls from a sentinel cohort of cow-calf herds in western Canada and to estimate the association between positive test status and non-pregnancy. The final objective was to evaluate the application of these tests when: i) screening bulls in the absence of a recognized problem with reproductive performance, and ii) testing for diagnosis of poor p ...
Summer eczema, allergic dermatitis of the horse, was studied on 275 affected horses in Finland in 1997-2007. Features of the horses, clinical signs of the disease and owners' opinions of aggravating factors were recorded. Differences, especially, between two of the native Scandinavian horse breeds, the Finnhorse and the Icelandic horse, were evaluated. The study was based on clinical examination and information from the owners. Of the horses, 50% were Finnhorses, 26% Icelandic horses and 24% con ...
A comparative study of the composition of gliadin proteins contained in grains of different-quality wheat cultivars Rollo and Drott and four forms of hybrids F9 and F10, obtained by crossing these cultivars, has been performed. The traits of grain productivity of ears, quality of flour, dough, and gluten were analyzed. Groups of genetically linked gliadin components, controlled by chromosomes 1 and 6 of homoeologous groups, have been identified as protein markers of selectively valuable traits o ...
Will the beef and pork subsectors integrate vertically as completely as poultry? This paper compares several aspects of the three subsectors. Pork will continue vertically integrating similar to poultry. Beef is the least vertically integrated to date and has the most barriers to overcome to vertically integrate further. 1 Vertical Integration Comparison: Beef, Pork, and Poultry There has been much discussion regarding the vertical structure and evolutionary changes in the beef and pork subsecto ...
104 Wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) is the most important cereal crop for the majority of world’s populations. It is the most important staple food of about two billion people (36% of the world population). Approximately one-sixth of the total arable land in the world is cultivated with wheat. Whereas paddy is mainly cultivated in Asia, wheat is grown in all the continents of the world. India is one of the principal wheat producing and consuming countries in the world. The annual production of wh ...
Systemic lupus erythematosus is a systemic autoimmune disease characterized by the production of antinuclear antibodies (ANAs). Recent research into human and murine lupus suggests that disease susceptibility results from genetic polymorphisms regulating immune responses as well as impairing the clearance of apoptotic cells. Because the products of dead cells, including nucleic acids, have immunologic activity, this situation can promote antigendriven ANA responses. Furthermore, immune complexes ...